Original Research

Bifactor modelling and measurement invariance testing of the Innovative Behaviour Inventory

Hamfrey Sanhokwe, Willie Chinyamurindi, Joe Muzurura
African Journal of Psychological Assessment | Vol 5 | a113 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ajopa.v5i0.113 | © 2023 Hamfrey Sanhokwe, Willie Chinyamurindi, Joe Muzurura | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 27 June 2022 | Published: 31 August 2023

About the author(s)

Hamfrey Sanhokwe, Graduate School of Business Leadership, Faculty of Business Sciences, Midlands State University, Gweru, Zimbabwe
Willie Chinyamurindi, Department of Business Management, University of Fort Hare, East London, South Africa
Joe Muzurura, Department of Economics, Faculty of Business Sciences, Midlands State University, Harare, Zimbabwe


Innovation-driven growth demands that organisations periodically assess the innovative behaviour of employees and facilitate appropriate interventions to nurture it. Human behaviour is complex. Corporate researchers rely on standard measures to appreciate employee behaviours at work. Quality tools support decision-making by detecting gaps and creating opportunities for improvement at work. One promising measure is the Innovative Behaviour Inventory (IBI). Although the IBI was developed and validated in Europe, it can still be applied in other contexts if it exhibits adequate psychometric properties and diagnostic utility. Using a probability sample drawn from Zimbabwe, the study used bifactor analysis to assess the dimensionality of the IBI measurement model. The study assessed the measurement invariance of the IBI using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. The study modelled the general factor of the IBI. Multiple tests confirmed the internal consistency reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the measure. The IBI was invariant across gender groups. The IBI adds to the suite of available tools for assessing innovative work behaviour as part of a dedicated leadership excellence agenda. The IBI offers practical advantages because of its integrated, multi-faceted nature, diagnostic utility and robust psychometric properties. Periodic surveys, using the IBI, provide corporate researchers and organisational leaders with information on the quality of innovative behaviour that resides in their organisations. The IBIs invariance and ability to quantify, as summative scores, the levels of innovative behaviour enable sub-group analysis. Sub-group analytical outputs facilitate targeted interventions in the workplace.

Contribution: Appreciating the quality of the IBI measurement model carries ethical and practical significance. Studies of this nature safeguard the subjects of research and promote purpose-driven corporate and scholarly work.


desirable behaviour; reliability; validity; dimensionality; measurement invariance; periodic corporate assessments; targeted interventions


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